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Table 1 Chemicals that promote actin polymerization or depolymerization and their role in the osteogenic or adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

From: A glance on the role of actin in osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

Chemical Dose and duration Osteogenic/adipogenic marker References
Cytochalasin D 0.1 μg/mL for 48 h ALP and calcium levels decreased at days 5 and 10 [29]
Cytochalasin D 100 ng/mL for 1, 3, 7, and 14 days Decreased levels of ALP and osteocalcin, increased levels of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) [16]
Cytochalasin D 0.02 mg/mL Increased adipogenesis [83]
Cytochalasin D 1–20 μM, 1 h every day for 9 days Decreased osteoblast differentiation, decreased ALP and mineral matrix [55]
Phalloidin 0–6 μM, 3 h every day for 9 days Increased ALP activity and mineralized matrix formation  
Cytochalasin D 0.1 mg/mL day 1 Osterix, osteocalcin, and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) levels increased on days 2 and 3 [84]
Cytochalasin D 0.1 mg/mL for 3 days Increase in osteogenesis (higher level of alkaline phosphatase, tissue-nonspecific isozyme (Alpl), specificity protein (Sp7), gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein (Bglap genes)) and adipogenesis (higher level of fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4), adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ genes)) in growth medium, increased adipogenesis in adipogenic medium, and increases osteogenesis in osteogenic medium [57]
Cytochalasin D 0.1 mg/mL for 14 days Increase in osteogenesis through increased expression of the VGLL4 gene; the effect of cytochalasin D was dependent on the biological state of the cells [85]
Cytochalasin D 1–20 μM for 1 h every day for 13 days Increased adipocyte differentiation [49]
Phalloidin 0–3 μM for 3 h every day for 13 days Decreased adipocyte differentiation and adipocyte-specific gene expression (ADIPOQ, LPL, PPARG, FABP4) [49]
Cytochalasin D Increased adipogenesis through the regulation of the FGF2, TGFβ2, EGR2, MEF2D, and IRS1 genes [56]