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Table 1 Scaffold materials in the tissue engineering

From: Progress in studies of epidermal stem cells and their application in skin tissue engineering

Biomaterials Examples Structure Application
Natural biomaterials Elastin An elastic protein made up of water soluble tropoelastin Cardiac stent coatings, soft tissue reconstruction, orthopedics
Collagen A fibrous triple-helical protein Wound healing, skin grafts, muscle repair, nerve regeneration, anti-aging
Collagen type I, a major subtype consists of two alpha 1 units and one alpha 2
Chitosan A linear polysaccharide consisting of β-(1-4)-linked d-glucosamine and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine Wound healing, orthopedics, cardiac repair, nerve regeneration, drug and gene delivery
Protein-based biomaterials Fibrin A fibrous non-globular protein produced by the cleavage of fibrinogen Wound healing, cardiac repair, cell delivery
Silk Extracted from cocoon of silk worms. It contains fibrous protein fibroin and water soluble sericin protein Muscle repair and regeneration, bone tissue engineering, cornea repair, drug delivery
Polysaccharide-based biomaterials Alginate An anionic polysaccharide consisting of homopolymeric blocks of (1-4)-linked β-d-mannuronate (M) and C-5 epimer α-l-guluronate (G) residues Wound healing, drug delivery, soft tissue, engineering, cell delivery, in vitro stem cell maintenance
Synthetic polymer-based biomaterials Poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) and PLGA Copolymers that consist of monomers of lactic acid and glycolic acid connected by ester bonds Wound healing, cell delivery