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Table 1 Quantification of histological staining intensity of MSCs preconditioned with five parameters of nsPEFs and differentiated to osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineage for 14 days

From: Nanosecond pulsed electric fields enhance mesenchymal stem cells differentiation via DNMT1-regulated OCT4/NANOG gene expression

Fold P value 10 ns, 20 kV/cm 60 ns, 5 kV/cm 60 ns, 10 kV/cm 60 ns, 20 kV/cm 100 ns, 10 kV/cm
Osteogenic 1.58 ± 0.05**** 1.34 ± 0.07* 1.15 ± 0.07 NS 1.20 ± 0.09 NS 1.48 ± 0.06***
Adipogenic 1.72 ± 0.03**** 1.21 ± 0.10 NS 1.34 ± 0.10** 1.46 ± 0.10*** 1.83 ± 0.03****
Chondrogenic 1.46 ± 0.05*** 1.96 ± 0.17**** 1.30 ± 0.08 NS 1.76 ± 0.10*** 1.45 ± 0.03****
  1. Three batches of studies were tested with 3 biological donors, values are mean ± SEM from one representative batch with 5 technical repeats, one-way ANOVA, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, ****p < 0.0001, and NS, p > 0.05