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Fig. 3 | Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Fig. 3

From: Potential application of mesenchymal stem cells and their exosomes in lung injury: an emerging therapeutic option for COVID-19 patients

Fig. 3

Anticipated effect of MSCs on lung cells in SARS-CoV-2-induced lung injury. High levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (cytokine storm) associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection lead to lung cell damage and an increase in the permeability of pulmonary capillaries. The affected cells include alveolar type I epithelial cells (AT1), alveolar type II epithelial cells (AT2), and endothelial cells. MSCs secrete several paracrine factors and extracellular vesicles (EVs), which have anti-apoptotic functions. This effect enhances cell survival and improves lung functions. Ang-1, Angiopoietin 1; HGF, hepatocyte growth factor; FGF7, fibroblast growth factor-7; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor

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