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Table 2 Pre-clinical studies of ADSCs and their secretome in photoaging and photocarcinogenesis

From: Application of adipose-derived stem cells in photoaging: basic science and literature review

Function In vitro or in vivo Source Effect cell Findings Reference
Anti-wrinkling In vitro ADSC HDF Stimulate collagen expression with higher tropoelastin and fibrillin-1 assessments, decrease MMP expression [20]
Anti-wrinkling In vitro and in vivo ADSC and ADSC-CM HDF Augment dermal thickness and stimulate the proliferation of HDF by the Wnt/ β-catenin signaling pathway [21]
Anti-wrinkling In vitro ADSC-CM HDF and HaCaT Increase procollagen type I synthesis inhibitors IL-6, promote collagen synthesis enhancer TGF- β and inhibit UVB-induced activation of AP-1 and NF- κB [71]
Anti-wrinkling In vitro and in vivo ADSC and ADSC-CM HDF Reduce wrinkle, decrease the UVB-induced apoptotic cell death and MMP1 expression, increase collagen I [86]
Anti-wrinkling In vitro ADSC-EV HDF Suppress the overexpression of MMP-1, -2, -3 and -9 and enhance the expression of TIMP-1, TGF- β1, collagen types I, II, III and V and elastin [95]
Anti-wrinkling In vivo ADSC HDF Stimulate collagen synthesis in HDF and increase angiogenesis [98]
Whitening In vivo ADSC Melanocyte Inhibit melanin formation [128]
Whitening In vitro ADSC-CM Melanoma B16 cell Inhibit melanin synthesis by downregulating tyrosinase and TRP1, mainly mediated by TGF- β1 [129]
Whitening In vivo ADSC Melanocyte Attenuate tanning following UVB-irradiation by suppressing tyrosinase activity [130]
Wound healing In vivo ADSC HDF Inhibit senescence and recover from the injury caused by UV by downregulating SA- β-Gal, p21 and MMP-1 [34]
Wound healing In vitro ADSC-Exo HDF Enhance proliferation and migration of HDF, as well as promote collagen type I and III deposition via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway [104]
Inhibit skin cancer In vivo ADSC Total cell of the skin Restore skin barrier by ameliorating the downregulation of α6 integrin, CD34, and collagen I by UVB, reducing the overexpression of COX2 and TNF- α induced by UVB. [97]
Inhibit skin cancer In vitro and in vivo ADSC-CM Melanoma B16 cell Decrease the proliferation and migration ability of B16 melanoma cells and reduce volume of the tumor mass [129]
Systematic improvement In vivo Protein extracts of ADSC-CM Total cell of the skin Improve melanin levels, brightness, skin gloss, roughness, elasticity, and wrinkles [127]