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Table 2 Preclinical and clinical studies of MSCs for the treatment of skeletal diseases

From: Mesenchymal stem cells: amazing remedies for bone and cartilage defects

Defect type Model MSC type Findings
IVD Porcine Autologous BM-MSCs Reduction in COL1 expression as a marker for fibrosis, reduction of inflammation marker IL1β and elevation of trophic factor BMP2, reducing disc degeneration [22]
Rat Xenogeneic hAD-MSCs Viability and proliferative potentiate of AD-MSC transplanted within the rat IVD, contribution in the maintenance of disc height after the operation [23]
Human (n = 5) Autologous BM-MSCs Improvement in strength and mobility post stem cell treatment [24]
Human (n = 10) Autologous BM-MSCs Feasible and safe, rapid improvement of pain and disability (85% of maximum in 3 months) [25]
Osteoporosis Goat Autologous BM-MSCs Improvement of bone formation in the osteoporotic model in vivo [26]
Rat Xenogeneic hUCB-MSCs Enhancement of bone formation abilities in osteoporotic rat model similar to no osteoporotic bone regeneration [27]
OI Mouse Human fetal e-CSCs Reduction of fractures, increasing bone ductility and BV by directly differentiating to osteoblasts, stimulating host chondrogenesis and osteogenesis [28]
Human (n = 3) Allogeneic BM-MSCs Increase in total body bone mineral content and new dense bone formation [29]
Bone fractures Rabbit Autologous AD-MSCs Improvement of healing process in tibial defects compared to using hydroxyapatite alone [30]
Rat Xenogeneic hDP-MSCs Increased callus homogeneity, decline callus earlier size, increased percentage of lamellar in newly formed bone, lower incidence of fibrous tissue in the experimental group, advanced and more efficient bone healing in the cell-treated group compared to the control [31]
Human (n = 18) BMAC Faster healing in BMAC cancellous bone allograft transplanted group compared to an autologous bone graft, efficacy of BMAC for treatment of nonunion [32]
OA Rat Allogeneic BM-MSCs Chondroprotection and reduced subchondral bone mineral density in the transplantation [33]
Human (n = 4) Autologous BM-MSCs Positive changes in all patients, clear bone formation in osteonecrosis patients, cartilage regeneration in the OA patients [34]
Human (n = 6) Autologous BM-MSCs Improvement of pain, functional status of the knee and walking distance, increase in cartilage thickness, extension of the repair tissue and a considerable decrease in the size of edematous subchondral patches [35]
Human (n = 18) Autologous AD-MSCs Reduced cartilage defects by regeneration of hyaline-like articular cartilage and improvement of function and pain of the knee joint without causing adverse events [36]
  1. IVD intervertebral disc, BM-MSCs bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, COL1 collagen typ1, IL1β interleukin1 β, BMP2 bone morphogenetic protein, hAD-MSCs human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells, hUCB-MSCs human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells, OI osteogenesis imperfecta, e-CSCs human fetal early chorionic stem cells, BV bone volume, BMAC bone marrow aspiration concentrate, OA osteoarthritis, hDP-MCs human dental pulp-derived mesenchymal stem cells