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Table 1 Examples of bone homeostasis-relevant paracrine factors released by MSCs

From: Impact of 3D cell culture on bone regeneration potential of mesenchymal stromal cells

Target Paracrine factors References
Osteogenic differentiation TGFβ, BMP-1 and miR-196a [108,109,110]
Anti-inflammation IL-10, TGFβ, TSG-6, LIF, miR-146a-5p, miR-548e-5p, let 7 family, miR-145 [43, 108, 111,112,113,114,115]
Immunomodulation PGE-2, HLA-G5, HGF, iNOS, TGFβ and IL-10 [108, 116, 117]
Anti-apoptosis VEGF, HGF, IGF-1, stanniocalcin-1, GM-CSF and TGFβ [108, 118]
Angiogenesis VEGF, IGF-1, PIGF, MCP-1, FGF-2 and IL-6 [118]
Support of growth and differentiation of stem cells SCF, LIF, M-CSF, SDF-1 and angiopoietin-1 [113, 118]
Chemoattraction CCL2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 20 and 26 and CXCL5, 11, 1, 2, 8, 10 and 12 [117, 118]
Anti-fibrosis HGF, FGF-2 and adrenomedullin [113, 118, 119]