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Table 1 Summarizing studies that used growth factor and cytokines for differentiating MSCs into HLCs

From: Different approaches for transformation of mesenchymal stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells

MSC source Cytokines and growth factors used for hepatic differentiation Estimated properties of differentiated HLCs References
AT-MSCs HGF, FGF-1, FGF-4 Produce ALB, uptake low-density lipoprotein and ammonia detoxification, could incorporate in the parenchyma of the mouse liver after transplantation [16]
AT-MSC Using Dexa, ascorbic acid, EGF, bFGF, and HGF Gene expression analysis, functional assays, and transplantation into mouse with chronic liver injury [17]
AT-MSC FGF, EGF, HGF, OSM, Dexa, and TSA Hepatocyte-specific markers (ALB and AFP), bioactivity assays (LDL uptake and glycogen storage) [18]
UC-MSCs Sequential exposure to EGF, bFGF, bFGF-HGF, and finally OSM Analyzed HLCs by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry, and immunocytochemical assays [19]
UC-MSCs Sequential exposure to TSA or DMSO Morphology and protein expression, urea synthesis, ammonia concentration [20]
UC-MSCs One-step protocol by using HGF and FGF-4 ALB, AFP, and CK-18, LDL uptake, and glycogen storage [21]
UC-MSCs Emphasizing on the critical role of OSM Function of differentiated cell by PAS staining and LDL uptake was examined. The protein expressions of TP, ALB, GLB, BUN, and AFP were also detected [22]
UCB-MSCs HGF and FGF-4 Urea production and protein secretion and production of AFP and ALB [2]
umbilical cord vein MSCs Two-step protocol that contained HGF and OSM Liver-specific protein markers such as ALB and CK-18 and expression of transthyretin, glucose 6-phosphatase, CK-18,18, AFP, hepatocyte nuclear factor-3β and ALB, indocyanine green cell uptake, glycogen storage [23]
F-MSCs HGF, bFGF, and OSM Measured the expression of hepatocyte-specific markers such as AFP and CK-18 [24]
BM-MSCs FGF-4, HGF, and combination of HGF-ITS-Dexa, and TSA Glycogen storage and CK-18 expression, HNF-3beta, AFP, CK18, ALB, HNF1α, MRP2 and C/EBPα, ALB secretion, urea production and P450 (CYP)-dependent activity [25]