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Table 1 Summarizing studies that used growth factor and cytokines for differentiating MSCs into HLCs

From: Different approaches for transformation of mesenchymal stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells

MSC sourceCytokines and growth factors used for hepatic differentiationEstimated properties of differentiated HLCsReferences
AT-MSCsHGF, FGF-1, FGF-4Produce ALB, uptake low-density lipoprotein and ammonia detoxification, could incorporate in the parenchyma of the mouse liver after transplantation[16]
AT-MSCUsing Dexa, ascorbic acid, EGF, bFGF, and HGFGene expression analysis, functional assays, and transplantation into mouse with chronic liver injury[17]
AT-MSCFGF, EGF, HGF, OSM, Dexa, and TSAHepatocyte-specific markers (ALB and AFP), bioactivity assays (LDL uptake and glycogen storage)[18]
UC-MSCsSequential exposure to EGF, bFGF, bFGF-HGF, and finally OSMAnalyzed HLCs by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry, and immunocytochemical assays[19]
UC-MSCsSequential exposure to TSA or DMSOMorphology and protein expression, urea synthesis, ammonia concentration[20]
UC-MSCsOne-step protocol by using HGF and FGF-4ALB, AFP, and CK-18, LDL uptake, and glycogen storage[21]
UC-MSCsEmphasizing on the critical role of OSMFunction of differentiated cell by PAS staining and LDL uptake was examined. The protein expressions of TP, ALB, GLB, BUN, and AFP were also detected[22]
UCB-MSCsHGF and FGF-4Urea production and protein secretion and production of AFP and ALB[2]
umbilical cord vein MSCsTwo-step protocol that contained HGF and OSMLiver-specific protein markers such as ALB and CK-18 and expression of transthyretin, glucose 6-phosphatase, CK-18,18, AFP, hepatocyte nuclear factor-3β and ALB, indocyanine green cell uptake, glycogen storage[23]
F-MSCsHGF, bFGF, and OSMMeasured the expression of hepatocyte-specific markers such as AFP and CK-18[24]
BM-MSCsFGF-4, HGF, and combination of HGF-ITS-Dexa, and TSAGlycogen storage and CK-18 expression, HNF-3beta, AFP, CK18, ALB, HNF1α, MRP2 and C/EBPα, ALB secretion, urea production and P450 (CYP)-dependent activity[25]