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Fig. 4 | Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Fig. 4

From: The role and mechanism of mitochondrial functions and energy metabolism in the function regulation of the mesenchymal stem cells

Fig. 4

The signalling pathway and key factors which regulated the mitochondrial energy metabolism in MSCs. PKCλ/ι can activate HIF-1α, while HIF-1α promotes glycolysis and decreases ROS level in MSCs. SIRT3 and PGC-1α can induce SOD2, which regulate the ROS levels and promote OXPHOS in MSCs. In addition, PGC-1α can stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration through induction of UCP2, which can increase thermogenesis upon activation. Mechanismly, SIRT1 induces phosphorylation of LKB1 by deacetylation of LKB1. LKB1 activates AMPK through phosphorylation of AMPK. And mTORC1 is a downstream target of AMPK, which is negatively regulated by AMPK, can phosphorylate PGC-1α. And also SIRT1 can directly deacetylate the phosphorylated PGC-1α. Therefore, LKB1, AMPK, and SIRT1 all participate in the regulation of PGC-1α. AMPK, Adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase. HIF-1α, Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. LKB1, Liver kinase B1. MSCs, Mesenchymal stem cells. mTORC1, Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1. OXPHOS, Oxidative phosphorylation. PGC-1α, PPARγ coactivator-1α. PKCλ/ι, Protein kinase C isoform λ/ι. ROS, Reactive oxygen species. SIRT, Sirtuin. SOD2, Superoxide dismutase 2. UCP, uncoupling protein

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