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Table 1 Mitochondrial transfer modes from different tissue-specific MSCs to recipient cells of different origins

From: The role and mechanism of mitochondrial functions and energy metabolism in the function regulation of the mesenchymal stem cells

MSC types Recipient cell Mode of mitochondrial transfer Action References
BMSCs Corneal endothelial cells, 661W cells, and ARPE-19 cells TNTs Ocular tissue regeneration Jiang D et al., Theranostics, 2020 [35]
BMSCs Macrophage TNTs Enhance macrophage phagocytosis, and thereby improve ARDS and sepsis Jackson MV et al., Stem Cells, 2016 [36]
BMSCs Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells TNTs Protect the target organs from apoptosis Burt R et al., Blood, 2019 [37]
BMSCs Th17 cells TNTs Affect the immune regulation function of the Th17 cells and promote the acquisition of anti-inflammatory phenotype by pro-inflammatory Th17 cells Luz-Crawford P et al., Stem Cell Res Ther, 2019 [38]
BMSCs Alveolar epithelial cells Gap junctions Treatment of acute lung injury Islam MN et al., Nat Med, 2012 [39]
BMSCs, umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells CD4+ T cells EVs Involved in T cell activation and reduction of tissue damage in graft-versus-host disease Court AC et al., S EMBO Rep, 2020 [40]
BMSCs Mouse alveolar macrophages EVs Promote the anti-inflammatory effects of macrophages and express the phenotype of macrophages with high phagocytic functions in an acute respiratory distress syndrome model Morrison TJ et al., Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 2017 [41]
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells Cardiomyocytes Cell fusion Reprogram the adult cardiac cells towards a progenitor-like state Xu X et al., Cell Metab, 2013 [42]