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Table 4 Summary of the effects of Zn2+ content on different cells

From: The impact of Zn-doped synthetic polymer materials on bone regeneration: a systematic review

Source Cell types Promoting Zn2+ content Inhibiting Zn2+ content References
Adipose Swine ASC 0.04–0.08 mM for mineral nodule formation Above 0.08 mM for cell growth [10]
pASCs Below 0.04 mM for cell number and metabolic activity [11]
Bone mBMSCs 10.91–27.15 μM for proliferation and ALP activity 128.58 μM for ALP activity [12]
MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts 10−6–10−4 M for osteoprotegerin, Runx-2, and regucalcin mRNA expression [38, 39]
Human osteoblast-like cell line SaOS-2 1–10 μM for ALP expression and mineral deposition Exceeding 25 μM for the same functions [40, 41]
Osteoclast 10−12–10−4 mol/L for cell activity Higher than 10−4 to promote the proliferation of TRAP-positive cells [41, 42]
Osteoblasts and primary murine bone marrow stromal cells Lower than 10−9 M for proliferation Lower than 10−9 M for osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation [42, 43]
rBMSCs 10−5 mol/L to achieve the best osteogenic effect [43, 44]
Vascular Endothelial cells 1.1 mg/L for proliferation 2.7 mg/L to cause cytotoxicity [3435]
Vascular smooth muscle cells 60–80 μM for cell adhesion, spreading, proliferation, and migration 80–120 μM for the same cellular functions [37, 38]
Abdomen RAW264.7 10–250 μM to suppress osteoclastogenesis [39, 40]