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Table 2 Effects and mechanisms of huMSCs on POF

From: Human mesenchymal stem cell treatment of premature ovarian failure: new challenges and opportunities

Infertility model Treatment Main effect of huMSCs on POF Species References
CTX-induced POF Intravenous injection Stem cell homing (+), number of healthy follicles at different stages (+), granulosa cell apoptosis (−) Mice [12]
Super-ovulation-induced POF Intravenous injection (IV) and situ ovarian micro injection (MI) Restore ovarian function (+, IV > MI)
Homing in the medulla, cortex, and epithelium of injured ovaries
Mice [96, 97]
Aging female rats IV HGF, VEGF, and IGF-1 (+) Rats [98]
ZP3-induced POF IV E2, P, and IL-4 (+); FSH, IFN-γ, and IL-2(−); Th1/Th2 (−); improve endometrial conditions (+); number of healthy follicles (+); number of atretic follicles (−) Mice [99]
CTX-induced POF IV Folliculogenesis (+), NGF and pregnancy rate (+), NGF and TrkA (+), FSHR and caspase-3 (−) Rats [100]
Paclitaxel-induced POF   FSH (−); E2 (+); antral follicle (+); CK 8/18, TGF-ß, and PCNA (+); CASP-3(−) Rats [101]
Busulfan and CTX-induced POF HuMSC-MVs (IV) Homing (+); ovarian weight (+); ovarian angiogenesis (+); recover the disturbed estrous cycle (+); total AKT, p-AKT, VEGF, IGF, and angiogenin (+) Mice [102]
Cisplatin-induced POF HuMSC-EXOs Granulosa cell apoptosis (−), DNA repair proteins (+) GCs [103]
Busulfan and CTX-induced POF Co-culture of UC-MSCs and GCs (i.p.) HO-1 expressed in UC-MSCs can restore the ovarian function
JNK/Bcl-2-associated cytokines (+)
Mice [104]
CTX-induced POF Collagen/UC-MSC transplantation Ovarian volume (+), number of antral follicles (+), GC proliferation (+), CD31 (+), phosphorylation of FOXO3a and FOXO1 (+) Mice [105, 106]