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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the participants

From: Exosomal hsa_circ_0006859 is a potential biomarker for postmenopausal osteoporosis and enhances adipogenic versus osteogenic differentiation in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by sponging miR-431-5p

  Control Osteopenia Osteoporosis P value
Age (years) 58.32 ± 3.14 59.28 ± 4.06 60.67 ± 6.24 0.058
Body mass index (kg/m2) 23.8 ± 1.2 24.0 ± 2.1 24.1 ± 1.6 0.124
BMD (g/cm2) 0.93 ± 0.08 0.82 ± 0.11 0.65 ± 0.06 0.012
Lumbar spine (L1-L4) T-score − 0.25 ± 0.04 − 1.82 ± 0.09 − 2.86 ± 0.17 < 0.0001
Lumbar spine (L1-L4) Z-score − 0.26 ± 0.12 − 1.54 ± 0.03 − 2.76 ± 0.10 < 0.0001
PTH (pg/ml) 38.6 ± 12.4 36.9 ± 11.3 36.8 ± 12.2 > 0.05
25(OH) D (ng/ml) 23.6 ± 4.9 24.2 ± 3.8 23.9 ± 5.8 > 0.05
β-CTx (pg/ml) 558.6 ± 43.1 698.7 ± 52.1 808.4 ± 37.6 < 0.0001
tP1NP (ng/ml) 29.33 ± 3.21 45.22 ± 2.14 59.12 ± 4.02 0.018
Osteocalcin (ng/ml) 7.99 ± 1.08 13.55 ± 2.61 19.02 ± 3.10 0.002
Calcium (mmol/L) 2.43 ± 0.12 2.38 ± 0.07 2.39 ± 0.09 > 0.05
Inorganic phosphorus (mmol/L) 1.21 ± 0.08 1.20 ± 0.06 1.22 ± 0.04 > 0.05