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Table 1 Summary of the pros and cons of conventional treatments for RISI

From: Will mesenchymal stem cells be future directions for treating radiation-induced skin injury?

Conventional treatments Options Pros Cons Reference
Systemic therapy Antibiotics Control and eliminate bacterial infection Potential risk of antibiotic resistance occurrence [38,39,40]
Water-electrolyte balance Supplement of loss of water-electrolyte by wounds Cardiopulmonary load by excessive rehydration [39, 41]
Nutritional support Reduce autologous protein degradation and enhance immunity Burden to kidney and liver [40, 42]
Local treatment Topical corticosteroids Anti-inflammation, immunosuppression and anti-proliferation Decrease histamine and deplete mast cells on skin [41, 43]
Creams and ointments Anti-inflammatory and promote macrophages recruitment Less effective in managing patient-reported symptoms [44, 45]
Hydrogel dressings Induce healing time, reduce pain and infection Less frequent occurrence of severe skin reactions [46, 47]
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy Increase the oxygen supply, inhibit inflammatory reaction, and reduce exudation Arterial insufficiency, refractory osteomyelitis and bone necrosis [48, 49]
Superoxide dismutase Antioxidant enzymes for scavenging free radicals Not mentioned [50, 51]
Low-intensity laser Reduction of edema and analgesia induction Not mentioned [50, 52]