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Table 2 Recent studies on treatment of AD murine models by INA of stem cells

From: Advances in intranasal application of stem cells in the treatment of central nervous system diseases

Authors Year Animal models Cell types Results
Danielyan et al. [62] 2014 APP/PS1
mouse model
BM-MSC-derived macrophages At 7 days after INA, macrophages induced by BM-MSCs were detected in different brain regions affected by Aβ plaque pathology
Mita et al. [65] 2015 Aβ1–40-peptide induced mouse model SHED-CM Cognitive function effectively improved. Reduced proinflammatory response of Aβ. Created anti-inflammatory/tissue regeneration environment. Induced formation of the anti-inflammatory M2-like microglia.
Harach et al. [66] 2016 APP/PS1 mouse model Soluble molecules of hMSC Ten weeks INA, the level of Aβ was effectively reduced. Continuous intranasal injection of soluble factor of hMSC also reduced amyloidosis in mice brain.
Perets et al. [67] 2019 5xFAD transgenic mouse model Exosomes of MSCs Exosomes were observed to accumulate near Aβ plaques within 96 h after INA.
  1. SHED-CM stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth-conditioned medium