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Table 3 Challenges of stem cells translation from animal experiments to clinical application via INA

From: Advances in intranasal application of stem cells in the treatment of central nervous system diseases

Challenges Solutions
Long-term therapeutic effect of cell transplantation Long-term observations of therapeutic effect in different animal models
Optimum cell quantity Different optimal cell sizes need to be found under different models
Long-term safety of cell transplantation Long-term observations of side effect in different animal models (such us oncogenicity)
Appropriate disease type Explore more possible treatments for neurological diseases