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Table 1 Functional pathways of MSC-EVs in different AKI models

From: Mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular vesicles in therapy against kidney diseases

Model Animal In vitro model Injection EVs/MVs/EXO of source Pathway/key substance Target Mechanism Reference
I/R Rat TECs Intravenous administration huMSC-EVs VEGF   Pro-angiogenesis [49]
Rat   Caudal vein hWJMSC-MVs miR-15a/15b/16 CX3CL1 Anti-inflammation [55]
Mouse   Capsule injection BMMSC-Exo CCR2 CCL2 Anti-inflammation [56]
SD rat TECs Caudal vein hWJMSC-EVs miR-30 Mitochondria Anti-apoptosis [57]
SD rat    MSC-Exo IL-6, TNF-α, NF-kappa B, IFN -γ;caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2   Anti-inflammation and anti-apoptosis [50]
Rat NRK-52E cell Caudal vein hWJMSC-EVs Nrf2 ARE Antioxidation [57]
Mouse TECs Intravenous administration hpMSC-EVs miRNA-200a-3p Keap1-Nrf2 Antioxidation [51]
Cisplatin SCID mouse TECs Caudal vein BMMSC-MVs Bcl-XL, Bcl2, and BIRC8↑, Casp1, Casp8, and LTA↓   Anti-apoptosis [58]
SD rat NRK-52E cell Capsule injection huMSC-Exo ERK1/2 pathway   Pro-proliferation [52]
C57BL/6 mouse TECs Intravenous administration ADMSC-MVs miR-141 Ulk2 Regulating autophagy [53]
miR-377 Cul1 Regulating cell cycle
SD rat NRK-52E cell Capsule injection huMSC-Exo   ATG5 and ATG7↑ Pro-autophagy [59]
SD rat HK-2 Capsule injection huMSC-Exo 14–3-3ζ ATG16L Pro-autophagy [60, 61]
CD1 mouse HEK cell   BMMSC-EVs hsp70↓ NLRP3 inflammasome↓ Anti-inflammation [62]
Glycerol SCID mouse mTECs Intravenous administration BMMSC-EVs mRNA (CCNB1, CDK8, CDC6)   Regulating cell cycle [63]
miRNAs HGF and IGF-1 Pro-proliferation
SCID mouse mTECs Intravenous administration BMMSC-EVs miRNAs   Pro-regeneration [54]
CPL Mouse   Caudal vein huMSC-Exo miR-146b↑ IRAK1↓, NF-κB↓ Anti-inflammation [64]
C57/BL6 mouse   Caudal vein ADMSC-Exo SIRT1 pathway NF-κB Anti-inflammation [65]
  1. MSCs mesenchymal stem cells, EVs extracellular vesicles, AKI acute kidney injury, MVs: microvesicles, Exos exosomes, I/R reperfusion, CLP caecal ligation and puncture, BMMSCs bone marrow-derived MSCs, ADMSCs adipose-derived MSCs, huMSCs human umbilical cord-derived MSCs, hWJMSC human Wharton’s jelly MSCs, TECs tubular epithelial cells, ERK extracellular regulated kinase