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Table 2 Functional pathways of MSC-EVs in DN models

From: Mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular vesicles in therapy against kidney diseases

Model Animal In vitro model Injection EVs/MVs/EXO of source Pathway/key substance Target Mechanism Reference
STZ SD rat HPDCs Tail vein hUSC-Exo miRNA-16-5p VEGFA podocytes Anti-apoptosis [83]
C57BL/KsJ db/m mouse MP5 cell Tail vein ADMSC-EVs miRNA-26a-5p TLR4 Anti-apoptosis [84]
STZ Babl/c mouse HK-2 cell Tail vein huMSC–MVs miRNA-451a P15 and P19 Anti-fibrosis [85]
STZ NSG mouse   Tail vein HLSC/MSC EVs Serpina1a, FAS ligand, CCL3, TIMP1, MMP3, type I collagen, and Snail   Anti-fibrosis [86]
  MPC5 cell   ADMSC-Exo miRNA-215-5p ZEB2 Anti-fibrosis [87]
STZ Albino rat   Tail vein BMMSC-Exo   mTOR pathway Inducing autophagy [88]
  MPC5 cell   ADMSC-Exo miRNA-486 Smad1/mTOR signalling pathway Pro-autophagy [89]
  1. MSCs mesenchymal stem cells, EVs extracellular vesicles, DN diabetic nephropathy, STZ streptozotocin