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Table 2 Differentiation of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) into female germ cells in vitro

From: Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells and their exosomes for restoration of spermatogenesis in non-obstructive azoospermia: a systemic review

MSC source Source age Species Inducer References
Adipose tissue
Adult Pig Follicular fluid [108]
Amniotic membrane
Umbilical cord
Fetal Human BMP4 [109]
Follicular fluid Adult Human BMP15 [110]
Menstrual blood Adult Human Polylactic acid
Multi-wall carbon nanotubes
Menstrual blood Adult Human Follicular fluid [112]
Muscle Fetal Pig Follicular fluid [113]
Ovary Adult Mouse Oct4 overexpression [114]
Ovary Fetal Cow BMP4
Follicular fluid
Peritoneum Adult Mouse Human follicular fluid
Human cumulus-conditioned medium
Skin Adult Pig Follicular fluid [117]
Umbilical cord Fetal Goat Follicular fluid [118]
Umbilical cord Fetal Human Follicular fluid [119]
Wharton’s jelly Fetal Human Follicular fluid
Cumulus cell-conditioned medium
  1. Abbreviations: B MP bone morphogenetic protein