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Fig. 1 | Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Fig. 1

From: Human acellular amniotic membrane incorporating exosomes from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells promotes diabetic wound healing

Fig. 1

Characterization of human acellular amniotic membrane (hAAM). a The appearance of human amniotic membrane (hAM) tissue before decellularization. b The appearance of hAM after decellularization when the tissue became translucent. c Hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) staining of hAM before decellularization, showing the presence of a large number of nuclei (scale bar = 50 μm). d H&E staining of hAM after decellularization showing almost no cell residue (scale bar = 50 μm). e, f Microstructures of the hAM before decellularization under SEM showed that epithelial cells arranged in a flat paving stone-like appearance on the epithelial side (e: scale bar = 50 μm, f: scale bar = 10 μm). g, h Intertwined collagen fibers with a small amount of stromal cells (red circle) were observed on the stromal side of the hAM (g: scale bar = 50 μm, h: scale bar = 10 μm). i, j Microstructures of the hAAM after decellularization under SEM showed the epithelial cells were removed after decellularization, and cell niches were observed on the epithelia side of the hAAM (i: scale bar = 50 μm, j: scale bar = 10 μm). k, l A porous structure arranged by collagen fibers without stromal cells were observed on the stromal side of the hAAM (k: scale bar = 50 μm, l: scale bar = 10 μm). m SEM image of the swelling hAAM surface (scale bar = 1 μm). n SEM image of the swelling hAAM surface after adding exosomes (scale bar = 1 μm). o Swelling degree of the hAAM in different media at different time-points. p Moisture retention capacity of the hAAM

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