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Table 1 Summary of the clinical studies of stem cell therapy against COVID-19

From: Stem cell therapies and benefaction of somatic cell nuclear transfer cloning in COVID-19 era

Number of patients Symptoms Doses Duration of patient observation Outcomes References
18 Moderate and severe pulmonary disease 3 × 107 cells per infusion 06 days Intravenous hUCMSC infusion declined interleukin (IL)-6 levels and found to be safe.
Adverse effects like high fever were noticed.
[148]
01 Lung inflammation, fatigue, fever, cough Three times hUCMSC (5 ×  107 cells each time) 04 days Remission of the lung inflammation symptom. The studies show the safety of cell doses [101, 142]
01 Severe shortness of breath, cough, chest tightness, and fever 1 × 106 hWJCs cells per kilogram of weight 07 days Effective against COVID-19 pneumonia [84]
10 Respiratory distress, fever 1 × 106 MSCs per kilogram of body weight 14 days Reduction in peripheral lymphocytes, cytokine-secreting immune cells CXCR3 + CD4+ T cells, CXCR3 + CD8+ T cells, CXCR3 + NK cells disappeared in 3–6 days. [50]
12 Fever, chest tightness, shortness of breath, and fatigue 2 × 106 cells/kg 28 days Intravenous infusion of hUCMSC reduced the lung inflammation, as well as interleukin (IL)-6 levels, ascertained as an effective option to cure severe COVID-19 [153]
13 COVID-associated pneumonia 0.98 × 106 AT-MSC/kg 16 days Decrease in inflammatory parameters (reduction in C-reactive protein, IL-6, ferritin, LDH, and d-dimer), as well as an increase in lymphocytes [154]
02 Fever and dyspnea 1 × 106 MSCs per kilogram of body weight 14 days Lymphocytes increased, the inflammation mediators declined, symptom of dyspnea improved [155]
24 Classic ARDS, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 15 ml ExoFlo™ (derived from MSCs) + 100 ml normal saline 14 days Increased lymphocyte and neutrophil count, reduction was noted in C-reactive protein, IL-6, and ferritin [156]