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Table 1 Human cardiac organoids for drug evaluation

From: Cardiac organoid — a promising perspective of preclinical model

Cell types Production approaches Analysis Drug types References
hiPSC-CMs/hiPSC-ECs/HDFBs Aggregation Contraction, immunostaining, histology Inotropic agent (COA-Cl) Kitsuka et al. [38]
hiPSC-CMs/hPCFs Aggregation LIVE/DEAD staining, ATP activity, beating Cardiotoxic drugs (astemizole, cisapride, mibefradil, pergoglide, rofecoxib, terodeline, and valdecoxib) Skardal et al. [39]
hiPSC-CMs/hPCFs Aggregation LIVE/DEAD staining, ATP activity, beating Environmental toxins (glyphosate, lead, mercury, thallium) Forsythe et al. [40]
hiPSC-CMs/hCFs/hCMECs Aggregation Immunostaining, histology, cell viability, real-time qPCR Cardiotoxic drug (doxorubicin, sunitinib) Archer et al. [41]
hiPSC-CMs/NHCFs/CEs HA/gelatin-based hydrogel LIVE/DEAD staining Prodrug (capecitabine, ifosfamide) Rajan et al. [42]
hPSC-CMs/HDFBs Collagen/matrigel-based hydrogel Contraction, TEM, immunostaining, teal-time qPCR, RNA sequencing, calcium imaging Antiarrhythmic drugs (isoprotereno, digoxin, verapamil, nifedipine, disopyramide) Li et al. [43]
hiPSC-CMs/FBs/HUVECs/HADSCs Agarose hydrogel micromold RNA sequencing, transcriptional comparison, force, immunostaining, seahorse, calcium imaging Heart failure drug (JQ1), cardiotoxic drug (doxorubicin) Richards et al. [44]
hPSC-CMs/Stromal cells SU-8 photolithography, PDMS casting Force, proteomics, immunostaining, RNA sequencing Pro-proliferative compounds Mills et al. [37]
hiPSC-CMs PDMS micropillars Beating, immunostaining, real-time qPCR, cell viability, calcium imaging Antidepressant drug (alomipramine) Yin et al. [45]
hPSC-CMs/HCFs Polystyrene microwells Force, TEM, contraction, immunostaining, calcium imaging, RNA sequencing, Ion channels agents (nifedipine, thapsigargin, ranolazine, verapamil, dofetilide) Zhao et al. [46]
hiPSC-CMs Circular cell sheets Calcium imaging Antiarrhythmic drugs (quinidine, disopyramide, sotalol) Shinnawi et al. [47]
hPSC-CMs Circular casting Calcium imaging, force, TEM, effective refractory period, real-time qPCR, immunostaining, Western blot Antiarrhythmic drugs (vernakalant, lidocaine, flecainide, nifedipine carbomylcholin, isoproterenol) Goldfracht et al. [48]
  1. CEs cardiac endothelium cells; COA-Cl 2-Cl-C.OXT-A; HA hyaluronic acid; HADSCs human adipose-derived stem cells; HCFs human cardiac fibroblasts; hCMECs human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells; HDFBs human dermal fibroblasts; hPCFs human primary cardiac fibroblasts; HUVECs human umbilical vein endothelial cells; NHCFs normal human cardiac fibroblasts; PDMS polydimethylsiloxane;, TEM transmission electron microscopy; FBs fibroblasts