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Fig. 3 | Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Fig. 3

From: Adrenomedullin 2 improves bone regeneration in type 1 diabetic rats by restoring imbalanced macrophage polarization and impaired osteogenesis

Fig. 3

ADM2 improved the AGE-impaired osteogenic potential of BMSCs. AD Osteogenesis of BMSCs treated with α-MEM, OIM, OIM+AGEs, and OIM+AGEs+ADM2 was determined using ALP staining (A), ALP activity assays (B), and alizarin red staining (C). Calcium deposition was assessed by measuring the optical density (D). Scale bar 200 μm. E, F Expression of osteogenic-specific genes and proteins of BMSCs in different groups were assessed using qRT-PCR (E) and western blot (F). G Quantitative analysis of the protein levels of BMP-2, OCN, and OSX relative to GAPDH. The data were confirmed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s post hoc test from three independently repeated tests and are presented as the means ± SD. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01

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