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Fig. 1 | Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Fig. 1

From: The immune modulatory effects of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells in severe COVID-19 pneumonia

Fig. 1

Study plan, serological and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid immune features. a Schematic representation of MSC administration and samples processing. b Plasma levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulins at different time points (days 0, + 2, and + 8 after MSC infusion). c UMAP visualization of the six main cell types identified in the BALF by integrating the datasets of the days 0 and + 2 after MSC infusion. Dot plot graph shows the marker genes used to manually annotate each UMAP-associated cluster. Epithelial cells were discarded from further analyses. d Cell type frequencies in the days of observation. e The clustering of the BALF-derived neutrophils into five subgroups: S100+ neutrophils, CCL3+ neutrophils, IFN-activated neutrophils, IRAK3+ neutrophils, and HSP+ neutrophils. Dot plot graph shows the top five expressed genes by average log fold-change of each neutrophil sub-cluster. f The change in the proportion of each neutrophil sub-cluster in the days of observation. In b, d, and f, the red arrow indicates the time points in which MSC infusion was performed. For comments, see the text. BALF, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; COVID, coronavirus disease; IFN, interferon; Ig, immunoglobulin; MSC, mesenchymal stromal cell; NK, natural killer; SARS-CoV, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus; scRNA-seq, single-cell RNA sequencing; UMAP, Uniform Manifold Approximation and Projection

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