SOX9−/− promotes the emergence of SCGB1A1+ club cells and inhibits the maturation of MUC5AC+ goblet cells after long-term engraftment under kidney capsule. A Schematic of the experimental design. B Images of organoids 5 months after transplantation. C–H Immunofluorescence labeling of vascular marker CD31, epithelial marker E-cad and lung lineage markers in SOX9 wild-type (WT) and knockout (SOX9−/−) organoids transplanted under kidney capsule. Scale bars, 50 μm (C, D, and F, right panels of each sample; E, right panel of WT); 100 μm (C, D, and F, left panels of each sample; E, SOX9−/− and left panel of WT; G; H).