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Table 1 Etiology of premature ovarian failure

From: Transplantation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells to treat premature ovarian failure

POF causes Example References
Genetic Turner syndrome
BMP15
Mutation in LH and FSH receptors
Galactosemia and inhibin mutation
Mutation of FOXL2, PMM2, GDF9 [31, 32]
[33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50,51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59]
Enzymatic 17α-hydroxylase, aromatase [60]
Autoimmunity Associated diseases:
Addison’s diseases
Vitiligo
Myasthenia gravis
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Celiac disease
Autoimmune polyglandular
syndrome
Ovarian autoantibody
Zona pellucida autoantibody
Immune cells imbalance:
Enhancement in CD4 + T cell
and B cell
[61]
Vaccination HPV-vaccination [62]
Chemotherapy And
radiation therapy
Cyclophosphamide,
Nitrogen Mustard
[63]
Environmental Viral infections, smoking [64, 65]
  1. POF premature ovarian failure, BMP15 bone morphogeneticprotein15, LH luteinizing hormone, FSH follicle-stimulating hormone, FOXL2 Forkhead box L2, PMM2 phosphomannomutase 2, GDF9 growth/differentiation factor 9