Skip to main content

Table 1 Etiology of premature ovarian failure

From: Transplantation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells to treat premature ovarian failure

POF causes Example References
Genetic Turner syndrome
Mutation in LH and FSH receptors
Galactosemia and inhibin mutation
Mutation of FOXL2, PMM2, GDF9 [31, 32]
Enzymatic 17α-hydroxylase, aromatase [60]
Autoimmunity Associated diseases:
Addison’s diseases
Myasthenia gravis
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Celiac disease
Autoimmune polyglandular
Ovarian autoantibody
Zona pellucida autoantibody
Immune cells imbalance:
Enhancement in CD4 + T cell
and B cell
Vaccination HPV-vaccination [62]
Chemotherapy And
radiation therapy
Nitrogen Mustard
Environmental Viral infections, smoking [64, 65]
  1. POF premature ovarian failure, BMP15 bone morphogeneticprotein15, LH luteinizing hormone, FSH follicle-stimulating hormone, FOXL2 Forkhead box L2, PMM2 phosphomannomutase 2, GDF9 growth/differentiation factor 9