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Table 1 The advantages and disadvantages of several commonly used loading methods

From: Mesenchymal stem cells-derived exosomes for drug delivery

Methods Type of cargo Advantages Disadvantages References
Transfection RNA Good load efficiency and stability of the molecule Potential toxicity and genetic changes [36]
Electroporation Hydrophilic cargo Wide applicability Require sophisticated equipment/possible molecular aggregation/morphological changes of exosomes [37, 39,40,41]
Overexpression Protein Simple and convenient May cause imbalance of cell proliferation and apoptosis [33, 43]