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Table 1 Strategies for both synthetic and tissue-derived scaffolds to regulate cell microenvironment

From: Constructing a cell microenvironment with biomaterial scaffolds for stem cell therapy

Modified microenvironment Manufacturing/processing Engineering strategies Reference
Interaction with matrix proteins Biomimetic scaffolds e g  
Stem cell enhancement and engineering - Natural biomaterials - Alginate hydrogel [56]
Chitosan (CS) [61]
Tissue engineering and regeneration Hyaluronans (HA) [64]
- Synthetic biomaterials - Nanoparticle [60]
Biomatrix collagen [63]
PEG-HA-RGD-based hydrogel [62]
RGD-alginate hydrogel [71]
Immobilization of soluble factors Conjugated growth factors materials e g  
Stem cell enhancement   - CS/PGE2 [79]
Tissue repair and regeneration   Dextrin-rhEGF [99]
Immunomodulatory Controlled release materials - CS-IGF-1C [104]
Proangiogenesis   CS-NO hydrogel [106, 109]
Interaction with ECM proteins Natural ECM scaffolds e g  
Stem cell enhancement - Tissue-derived ECM - Cartilage matrix [116]
Tissue engineering and regeneration Matrigel [120]
Decellularized placenta matrix scaffoldDecellularized placenta matrix scaffold [124]
- Stem cell culture system by coating ECM scaffolds - Hypertrophic (HY) ECM [123]
Endogenous ECM [127]
Signaling feedback from modified niche EVs scaffolds e g  
- RGD-biotin hydrogels [69]
EVs engineering CS-NO hydrogel [121]
Tissue regeneration Collagen matrix [129]
Stem cell differentiation Chitosan (CS) [135]