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Table 3 Mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC)-derived exosome therapies for cutaneous wound healing

From: MSCs and their exosomes: a rapidly evolving approach in the context of cutaneous wounds therapy

Cell source Model Results References
BM In vivo Inducing the macrophage polarization by MSCs-exosome due to the existence of miR-223, supporting PBX/Knotted 1 homeobox 1(pknox1) targeting [208]
UC In vivo Stimulating the wound re-epithelialization and cell proliferation by inducing Wnt/β-catenin through the UC-MSCs-exosome [153]
iPSCs-MSC In vivo Enabling cutaneous wound healing by improving collagen synthesis as well as inducing by human-induced pluripotent stem cells- MSCs-exosome [150]
BM In vivo Accelerating wound healing in DFU mice by MSC-exosomes overexpressing lncRNA H19 [165]
BM In vitro
In vivo
Inhibition of the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and iNOS, and augmenting the expression of anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 in vitro by melatonin-preconditioned MSC-exosomes
Amelioration of the diabetic wound healing by adjusting the macrophage M1 and M2 polarization by regulation of the PTEN/AKT pathway through melatonin-stimulated MSC-derived exosomes in vivo
BM In vitro Improving the endothelial cells (ECs) proliferation, and angiogenesis through regulating AKT/eNOS pathway by MSCs-exosome in vitro [209]
UC In vitro Suppressing myofibroblast differentiation through suppressing the TGF-β/SMAD2 pathway by UC-MSCs-exosome [210]
In vitro Verifying the presence of VEGFA, FGF-2, HGF, and PDGF-BB in exosomes derived from BM, AT, and UC [211]
iPSCs-MSC In vitro Stimulating the human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) proliferation by iPSC-MSC-exosomes [212]
BM In vitro Inducing the proliferation and migration of fibroblasts, and stimulating angiogenesis in vitro by activating Akt, ERK, and STAT3 axes, and also improving the expression of an HGF, IGF1, NGF, and SDF1 [127]
UC In vitro Facilitating the collagen I and elastin synthesis in vitro by UC-MSCs-exosome [213]
AT In vitro Triggering the endothelial cell angiogenesis by transferring miR-125a by MSCs-exosome [214]
WJ In vivo Inhibition of skin cell death via inhibiting the AIF nucleus translocation and accelerating cutaneous wound healing by MSC-exosomes [157]
BM In vivo Amelioration of scar pathological injury, and reducing the inflammatory molecular generation in vivo by MSC-exosomes overexpressing TSG-6 [166]
BM In vitro Stimulating the in vitro wound healing by targeting the biological features of skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts as well as eliciting the angiogenesis by MSC-exosomes [16]
UC In vivo Inducing the regenerative wound healing by inhibiting the TGF-β receptor by UC-MSCs-exosome [215]
  1. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC), Adipose tissue (AT), Bone marrow (BM), Umbilical cord blood (UCB), Wharton's jelly (WJ), Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU), Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), Endothelial NOS (eNOS), Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), MicroRNAs (miRNAs), Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), Insulin-like growth factor (IGF), Nerve growth factor (NGF), Stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF1)