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Table 3 Treatment of retinal disorders with exosomes from stem cells in recent 5 years

From: Update of application of olfactory ensheathing cells and stem cells/exosomes in the treatment of retinal disorders

Origin of exosome Experimental subject Delivery way Function References
Human adipose MSCs, bone marrow MSCs and dental pulp stem cells Glaucoma rats Intravitreal injection Inhibit RGC loss and retinal nerve fibre layer thinning while preserving RGC function Mead et al. [138]
Human umbilical cord MSCs and allogeneic mice adipose MSCs derived exosomes Laser induced retinal injury mouse Intravitreal injection Down-regulated MCP-1 expression, reduce photoreceptor cell death and retinal injury Yu et al. [139]
Human bone marrow MSCs derived exosomes Optic nerve compression rats Intravitreal injection Promote RGC survival and axon regeneration, partially prevent RGC axon loss and RGC dysfunction Mead et al. [133]
Human bone marrow MSCs derived exosomes Oxygen induced retinopathy mouse Intravitreal injection Reduce the severity of retinal ischemia Moisseiev et al. [140]
Human bone marrow MSCs derived exosomes Hereditary glaucoma DBA/2J mouse Intravitreal injection Protect the optic nerve, preserve the number of RGC and prevent axonal degeneration Mead et al. [141]
Allogeneic rabbit adipose MSCs derived exosomes STZ induced diabetic rabbits Intravenous, intraocular or subconjunctival injection Increase micRNA-222, anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic effects Safwat et al. [129]
Human umbilical cord MSCs derived exosomes Diabetic rats Intravitreal injection Reduce inflammation in the retina Zhang et al. [130]
Human MSCs derived exosomes Retinal ischemia rats Intravitreal injection Enhance the recovery of retinal function and reduce neuroinflammation and apoptosis Mathew et al. [142]
Allogeneic rats bone marrow MSCs derived exosomes Retinal detachment rats Subretinal injection Inhibit the apoptosis of photoreceptor cells, maintain the normal retinal structure, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic effects Ma et al. [131]