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Table 1 Immunomodulatory effects of MSC/MSC-EVs for the attenuation of inflammatory diseases

From: Immunomodulatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells in peripheral nerve injury

Disease model Animal for In Vivo study MSC source Effects on immune cells Effects on cytokines Signaling pathway/related exosomal cargo Ref. No
Arthritis In vitro BMSCs,BMSCs-Exos CD8 or CD4 T lymphocytes↓, B lymphocytes↑ IFN-γ,TNF-α↓; IL-10↑ [99]
IBD Mouse OE-MSCs-Exos the differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells↓, Treg cells↑ IL-17, IFN-γ↓; TGF-β, IL-10↑ [100]
hP-MSCs-EVs IL-10, TGF-β↑; TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ and IL-6 ↓ [101]
MuSCs M2 macrophages↑,macrophages infiltration↓ IL-6,IL-1β↓ [102]
IUAs Rat UC-MSC-derived exosomes M2 macrophage↑ IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α↓; IL-10, TGF-β↑ [103]
Liver disease Mouse hUC-MSCs CD4 and CD8 T cells↓ IFN-γ↓ [104]
ALI Mouse UC-MSCs M2 macrophage↑
M1 macrophage↓
TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6↓ [105]
EAE Mouse BMSCs T cells↓ STAT1,STAT3,mTOR [106]
hUCMSC-EV the leukocyte infiltration↓,Tregs↑ IL-17a, TNF-α, and IFN-γ↓; IL-4, IL-10↑ [107]
Lung injury and fibrosis Mouse, monkeys hESCs TNF-α, TGF-β1, IL-6, IL-1β, GRO-α, IL-1α, IL-3 and IL-8↓ [108]
Wound healing Mouse BMSCs M2 polarization↑ IL-10↑; TNF-α↓ miR-223 [109]
Skin defect Mouse hBMSCs M2 macrophages↑ miR-150-5p [110]
IVD Bovine hBMSCs IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α ↓ [111]
Renal injury Mouse BMSC-exos infiltration of of macrophages↓ TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β↓ CCL2 [112]
Renal Diseases Rat hUCMSC-Ex TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β↓ mTOR [113]
cGVHD Mouse BMSC-exos Th17 cells, CD4 + T cells↓, Tregs↑ IL-17, IL-17a, IL-21, IL-22 and IL-2↓; IL-10↑ [114]
aGVHD Mouse BMSC-exos CD8αDCs, CD11b cDCs↑; CD8, CD3CD4 T cells↓ IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ↓; IL-10↑ [115]
Heart allograft rejection Rat IDO-BMSCs Tregs↑, DC↓ IL-10, TGF-β1, TGF-β2 and TGF-β3↑; IL-2, IFN-γ↓ [116]
CIA Rat hUCMSCs T lymphocytes (proliferation↓, apoptosis ↑), Th17 cell↓, Tregs↑ IL-17, TGF-β↓ RORγt mRNA,Foxp3 mRNA [117]
Mouse hADMSCs Tregs↑,the proliferation of T cells↓ TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6↓; IL-10↑ [80]
Rat hUCMSC-sEVs Th17 cell↓, T lymphocyte proliferation↓, Tregs↑ IL-17↓; IL-10, TGF-β ↑ [95]
PNI Rat(MRI, LPS and FK506) GFP-BMSCs M1,TLR4↓ TNF-α, IL-6↓; BDNF, GDNF↑ [118]
PSNL Rat(LPS) BMSCs IL-1β, TNF-α↓ [119]
CCI Rat(PMF) ADMSCs IL-6, IL-1β↓; IL-10↑ [120]
Diabetic Rat DPSCs CD206↑, CD68‐positive monocytes/macrophages↓ TNF-α, IL-1β↓; IL-10↑ [121]
CCI and SNI Mouse(TGF-β1) BMSCS Il-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α↓; TGF-β1↑ [31]
Nerve injury-induced pain Rat UCMSC -exos TNF-α, IL-1β↓ [122]
Dysphagia Rat hDPSCs M2 macrophages↑ iNOS, IL-1β↓ [123]
TBI Rat MSCs M1 macrophage↓, M2 macrophages↑ IL-10↑; IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, IFN-γ and TNF-α↓ NF-κB [124]
DAH Mouse hUCMSC-Ex M1 macrophage↓, M2 macrophages↑ IL-6, TNF-α↓; IL-10, TGF-β↑ [125]
Skeletal muscle contusion Mouse and in vitro hBMSC-exos M1 macrophages ↓, M2 macrophages↑ IL-6, TNF-α↓; IL-10,TGF-β↑ [126]
SCI Mouse hUCMSCs M2 macrophages↑ IL-7, IFN-γ, and TNF-α↓; IL-4, IL-13↑ [127]
PF Mouse hUCMSCs Tregs↑ CXCL9, CXCL10↑ [128]
  1. Effect of MSCs on cytokines and immune cells when treating different diseases. BMSCs: bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells; OE-MSCs: Olfactory ecto-mesenchymal stem cells; IBD: inflammatory bowel disease; IUAs: intrauterine adhesions; UC-MSC: umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell; ALI: acute lung injury; EAE: experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; hESCs: human embryonic stem cells; hP-MSCs-EVs: human placental mesenchymal stem cells-derived EVs; hUCMSC-Ex: human umbilical cord MSC-derived exosomes; cGVHD: chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease; aGVHD: acute graft-versus-host disease; cDCs: the CD8α conventional dendritic cells; IDO-BMSCs: BMSCs which stably expressed IDO; CIA: collagen-induced arthritis; NCI: nerve crush injury: MRI: magnetic resonance imaging; PSNL: partial sciatic nerve ligation; CCI: chronic constriction nerve injury model; ADMSC: adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells; PMF: pulsed magnetic field; DPSCs: Dental pulp-derived stem cells; SNI: spared nerve injury; TBI: traumatic brain injury; DAH: diffuse alveolar hemorrhage; MuSCs: muscle stem cells; SCI: spinal cord injury; hUCSC-EV: Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles; EAE: experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; PF: Pulmonary fibrosis; RA: Rheumatoid arthritis; hUCMSC-sEVs: hUCMSC-derived small extracellular vesicles (sEVs)