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Table 2 Stem cell sources for smooth muscle bioengineering and clinical applications

From: Adult stem cell sources for skeletal and smooth muscle tissue engineering

Stem cell Origin Differentiation capabilities Lineage specific markers Clinical applications
ADSCs Adipose tissue SMC, urothelium and nerve tissue regeneration CD105+, CD73+, CD44+, CD29+, CD90+, CD45−, CD34-
Endometrial and menstrual blood derived stem cells Endometrium and menstrual blood Support urothelial cell growth in vitro CD90, CD105, CD146 and Oct-4
USCs Urine SMC differentiation CD90+, CD105+, CD44+