Skip to main content

Table 1 Comparison between MSCs and MSC-EVs

From: Mesenchymal stromal cell-derived extracellular vesicles: novel approach in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Characteristic MSCs MSC-EVs Notes References
Determination of HSC fate Yes Similar to MSCs Both MSCs and MSC-EVs have the proliferation and differentiation capacity of HSCs in vivo and in vitro, as well as inhibition of HSC apoptosis [62, 73,74,75]
Malignant transformation Yes/no Not reported Malignant transformation of MSCs depend on source, passage number, expansion protocol, medium conditions, etc [91,92,93,94,95,96, 102]
Bone regeneration Yes Similar to MSCs MSCs engaged in bone regeneration via differentiation to osteoblasts, MSC-EVs promote bone regeneration via microRNAs, especially miR-335 [3, 89,90,91]
Genetically instability Possible Not reported Chromosomal anomalies in MSCs were seen at higher passages [101]
Ectopic differentiation Yes Not reported Bone formation in ectopic tissues after systemic infusion of MSCs were seen but not in MSC-EVs injection [99, 100]
Opportunistic infections High risk Safe MSCs are good vectors for microorganisms such as B19, CMV, HSV-1, and Mycoplasma hyorhinis but not reported for MSC-EVs [85,86,87]
Immunosuppressive potency Potent Low potent Increase recipient susceptibility to opportunistic infections [3, 20, 21]
Risk of GVHD Low Risk Less than MSCs Due to altering the proportion of immune cells, increasing the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and decrease pro-inflammatory cytokine release [64, 110]
Potential of tumor promoting effects Dual role Similar to MSCs It depends on balance between inhibitory (e.g., miR-221, -23b, -1587) and promotional (e.g., miR-145, -124a, -16) bioactive molecules [96,97,98]
  1. MSCs: Mesenchymal stem cells; MSC-EVs: Mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles; HSC: Hematopoietic stem cell; miR: microRNA; GVHD: graft-versus-host disease; B19: Parvovirus B19; CMV: Cytomegalovirus; HSV-1: Herpes Simplex