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Table 1 Endocrine factors secreted by MSCs

From: Potential mechanisms and therapeutic targets of mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for ischemic stroke

Type Secreted Factors Function
Chemokines [23, 24] CCL2-5, 7, 20, 26,
CXCL1, 2, 5, 8, 10–12 and CX3CR1
Pro-angiogenesis;
Immunoregulation;
Improve the integrity of BBB;
Promote the migration of different cells;
Cytokine [25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32] IL-10 Anti-inflammation;
Mediates microglia and macrophage phagocytosis
IL-13 Anti-inflammation
IL-3 Anti-inflammation;
Pro-angiogenesis;
Pro-neurogenesis;
Promote cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation
IL-1 Pro-inflammation;
Pro-angiogenesis
IL-8 Pro-inflammation;
Pro-angiogenesis
IL-6 Immunoregulation;
Promote cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation
Growth and trophic factors [33,34,35,36] BDNF Pro-neurogenesis;
Increase neuroplasticity;
Promote cell survival (by inhibiting apoptosis)
GDNF Pro-angiogenesis;
Pro-neurogenesis;
Promote cell survival (by inhibiting apoptosis and autophagy);
Improve the integrity of BBB
VEGF Pro-angiogenesis;
Increase neuroplasticity;
Pro-neurogenesis;
Promote cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation
TGF-β Immunoregulation;
Pro-neurogenesis;
Involved in extracellular matrix remodeling;
Promote cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation;
bFGF Pro-angiogenesis;
Pro-neurogenesis;
Promote cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation
IGF-1 Anti-inflammation;
Pro-neurogenesis;
Improve the integrity of BBB;
Promote cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation
HGF Anti-inflammation;
Anti-apoptotic;
Anti-fibrotic;
Pro-angiogenesis;
Pro-neurogenesis
Ang-1 Pro-angiogenesis;
Immunoregulation;
Promote cell survival;
Improve the integrity of BBB
MSC-Evs [37,38,39] Express MSCs markers, such as CD29, CD73, CD90, CD44, CD105, and EV markers, such as CD107, CD63, CD9 and CD81. Pro-angiogenesis; Pro-neurogenesis; Promote e cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation; Immunoregulation; Increase neuroplasticity; Anti-fibrotic
  1. MSCs, mesenchymal stem cells; CCL, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand; CXCL, C-X-C ligand; CCR, CXCR, BBB, blood–brain barrier; IL, interleukin; BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor; GDNF, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; bFGF/FGF-2, basic fibroblast growth factor; TGF-β, transforming growth factor-β; HGF, hepatocyte growth factor; and EVs, extracellular vesicles