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Table 2 The proposed molecular mechanism of the protective effect of MSCs for intestinal IRI

From: Mesenchymal stem cells against intestinal ischemia–reperfusion injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis of preclinical studies

References Mechanism Effect
AMI et al. [18] Oxidative stress, inflammation, and proliferation Decreased intestinal MDA, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, TGF-β1, MPO, MIP-2; increased intestinal EP3, IL-1Ra, PCNA
Chang et al. [4] Oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and proliferation Decreased intestinal NOX-1, NOX-2, TNF-α, MPO, NF-κB, MMP-9, iNOS, Bax, caspase-3, PCNA; increased intestinal NQO-1, GR, GPx, HO-1
Fukuda et al. [19] Inflammation; intestinal barrier function Decreased plasma IL-6; increased plasma IL-10
Gao et al. [20] Oxidative stress Decreased intestinal MDA; increased intestinal SOD
Geng et al. [21] Inflammation, intestinal barrier function, and proliferation Decreased intestinal NF-κB, serum TNF-α, IL-6; increased intestinal SDF-1, CXCR-4, EGF, EGFR
Jensena et al. [22] Inflammation and tight junction Decreased intestinal GCSF; increased claudin-1
Jensenb et al. [23] Inflammation Decreased intestinal IL-6, MIP-1α, MIP-2α, and IP-10
Jensen et al. [24] Unclear Improved histologic mucosal injury
Jiang et al. [25] Intestinal barrier function Decreased serum D-Lactate, urine Lactulose/Mannitol ratio, and incidence of enteric bacterial translocation
Jiang et al. [26] Inflammation and proliferation Decreased intestinal TNF-α, NF-κB; increased intestinal PCNA; induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2
Kong et al. [27] Inflammation, intestinal barrier function, and pyroptosis Seemed to decrease serum DAO, D-Lactate, IL-1β, intestinal IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6; seemed to inhibit pyroptosis (NLRP3/caspase-1/IL-18)
Liu and Li [28] Inflammation, intestinal barrier function and tight junction Decreased serum DAO, D-Lactate, TNF-α; increased ZO-1
Liu et al. [29] Inflammation and apoptosis Decreased intestinal MPO, TNF-α, IL-6; inhibited phosphorylation of NF-κB-p65, ERK, AKT; activated COX-2-PGE2 signaling
Markel et al. [30] Inflammation Decreased intestinal sALK-1, betacellulin, endothelin; increased intestinal Eotaxin, MIG, MCP-1, IP-10
Oliveira et al. [31] Inflammation Decreased intestinal polymorphonuclear inflammatory cells; improved histologic mucosal injury
Shen et al. [32] Intestinal barrier function and tight junction Decreased serum DAO, D-Lactate, TNF-α; increased ZO-1
Watkins et al. [33] Unclear Improved histologic mucosal injury
Yan et al. [34] Inflammation and intestinal barrier function Decreased serum IL-6
  1. IL-1β, -6, -10, 18: interleukin-1β, -6, -10, -18; TGF-β1: transforming growth factor-β1; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-α; IL-1Ra: interleukin-1 receptor antagonist; IP-10: interferon-γ-inducible protein-10; iNOS: inducible nitric oxide synthase; SDF-1: stromal-derived factor-1; EGF: epidermal growth factor; MCP-1: monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; NOX: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphatase oxidase; HO: heme oxygenase; caspase-3: cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase; ERK 1/2: extracellular regulated protein kinases; NF-κB: nuclear factor; DAO: diamine oxidase; MDA: malondialdehyde; ZO-1: zonula occluden-1; NLRP3: NOD-like receptor protein 3; Bax: B-cell lymphoma-2-associated X protein