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Table 3 Several kinds of MSCs for COVID-19

From: Spotlight on therapeutic efficiency of mesenchymal stem cells in viral infections with a focus on COVID-19

Stem cell Function in COVID-19 References
UC-MSCs Implemented IV infusion to 3 times (5 × 107 cells each time) caused recovery 65 aged women with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection [55]
MSC-EVs MSC-Evs have different and broad types of origins. Also, they contain molecules of an election, including a siRNA, microRNA, or protein which led to improvements in different tissue injuries [56, 57]
BM-MSC-Exos Only one 15 mL IV injection dose of Exos (ExoFlo™) in acute condition of COVID-19 patient. As a result of this treatment, 83% of cases improved [58]
MSCs In MSCs treatment, the CRP reduced, the number of peripheral lymphocytes enhanced, and overactivated cytokine-secreting immune cells disappeared (including CXCR3+CD4+ T cells, CXCR3+CD8+ T cells, and CXCR3+ natural killer cells). Also, a group of CD14+CD11c+CD11bmid regulative-DC crowd was enhanced, and the amount of TNF-α was reduced by a simultaneous increase in the level of the CSIF [59]
SCs/MSC-like cells (SP and GLI1 cells) Inhabitant SCs/MSC-similar cells (SP and GLI1 cells) have a significant function in pulmonary fibrosis. Their quantities decrease in mouse and SARS-CoV-2 infected persons by this complexity contrasted with average persons. And also, MSCs can influence immunosuppression and tissue repair [17]
MSCs-dependent on hACE21-740-Fc MSCs-dependent on scFv-IL6R-Fc and hACE21-740-Fc transfer method, which prepared a possible fast election to immediate clinic remedial requirement of SARS-CoV-2 infected cases [60]
MSCs MSCs may control increasing the absorbency of Tregs, including CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T lymphocytes and CD8+CD28 T lymphocytes, suppressing excessively high reproduction and differentiation of B cell, the maturity of DC, and improving macrophages to anti-inflammatory phenotypic polarization [61, 62]
AD-MSC AD-MSC can repress the NF-κB signal pathway, decrease the expression of pulmonary pro-inflammatory agents, diminish pulmonary inflammation, and eventually inverse the procedure of amiodarone-influenced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Moreover, the FGF, derived from the Ad-MSC secretome, displayed virus enhancement suppression characteristics [61, 62]
MSCs PGE2, LXA4, and their precursors, AA, DGLA, and GLA inhibit the generation of IL-6 and TNF-α, and also in the ICI treatment method, sepsis and ARDS are helpful in the treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, GLA, DGLA, and AA disable enveloped viral such as SARS-CoV-2 [63]
WJCs-MSCs IV injection of WJCs-MSCs in the patient, the levels of the CD3+, helper, and cytotoxic T cell are increased. Also, the measure of C-reactive protein, TNF-alpha, and interleukin-6 is remarkably reduced [64]