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Fig. 5 | Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Fig. 5

From: Anti-fibrotic effect of a selective estrogen receptor modulator in systemic sclerosis

Fig. 5

Anti-fibrotic effects of raloxifene in vitro. ac The iPSC-derived fibroblasts from SSc patients were subjected to the scratch assay and the wound length was measured 12 (b) and 24 (c) hours later. Scale bars, 100 μm. df The three-dimensional dermal equivalent derived from SSc patients were treated with TGF-β1 in the presence or absence of raloxifene and the skin thickness and area were determined by histology. Scale bars, 100 μm. g Proteome profiler human phospho-kinase array of GSK-3α/β with treatment raloxifene. h Quantification of the relative intensity by using imageJ. i Total collagen concentration with various concentrations of raloxifene was assessed by the hydroxyproline assay. j α-SMA expression with various concentrations of raloxifene was assessed by western blot analysis. k Quantification of the relative band intensity by using imageJ. l Expression of phosphorylated SMAD2 signaling with treatment raloxifene and bazedoxifene in iPSC-Fs by western blot assay. m Quantification of the relative band intensity by using imageJ. All graphs show the mean and standard error of the mean (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, as determined by Student’s t test)

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