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Fig. 4 | Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Fig. 4

From: Metformin combats high glucose-induced damage to the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells via inhibition of the NPR3-mediated MAPK pathway

Fig. 4

Upregulation of NPR3 compromised the metformin-enhanced osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs under high glucose. A Representative confocal images and quantitative analysis of natriuretic peptide receptor 3 (NPR3) in PDLSCs transfected with or without LV-NPR3 when they were cultured in normal, high glucose, or high glucose with metformin addition following a 14-day osteogenic induction (scale bar = 100 µm, ×200 magnification). B ALP staining and ALP activity assay of PDLSCs transfected with or without LV-NPR3 when they were cultured in normal, high glucose, or high glucose with metformin addition following a 7-day osteogenic induction (scale bar = 200 µm). C Alizarin Red staining and quantitative analysis of the stained calcium deposits formed by PDLSCs transfected with or without LV-NPR3 when they were cultured in normal, high glucose, or high glucose with metformin addition following a 21-day osteogenic induction (scale bar = 200 µm). HG, high glucose. Met, metformin. LV-NPR3, NPR3-overexpression lentivirus. Experiments for P4 cells from three different donors were repeated independently for at least 3 times, and data are presented as the means ± SD (n = 3). p value was based on one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA). *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, and ***p < 0.001 represent significant differences between the indicated columns, while NS represents no significant difference

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