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Table 1 Characteristics of stem/progenitor cells that can be used for therapeutic revascularisation of ischaemic tissue

From: Therapeutic revascularisation of ischaemic tissue: the opportunities and challenges for therapy using vascular stem/progenitor cells

Cell type Proliferative potential Risk of tumour formation Capacity to differentiate into vascular cells Engraftment/angiogenic potential in vivo
Pluripotent stem cells     
   Embryonic stem cells +++ +++ + +
   Induced pluripotent stem cells +++ +++ + +
Adult stem cells     
   Mesenchymal stem cells + +/- ++ ++
   Multipotent adult progenitor cells ++ +/- ++ ++
Endothelial progenitor cells     
   Early endothelial progenitor cells +/- + +/- +
   Outgrowth endothelial cells ++ +/- +++ +++
  1. +, ++, +++, Weak/low, moderate and high potential, respectively; +/-, little or no potential