Bone formation areas are increased after ectopic implantation of MSC-loaded BM
embedded in PGCAP. (a) The average ratio of bone formation area in BMA 28 days after grafting was determined in each condition. The data are expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean. A statistically significant difference between individual conditions was revealed by analysis-of-variance test followed by Student Newman-Keuls test. *P <0.05, **P <0.01, ***P <0.00, ****P <0.0001. (b) Type I collagen immuno-staining (brownish color) was performed on BMA and BMF sections before implantation and 28 days after implantation. Original magnifications: ×4 and ×10. i-MSC, not osteogenic induced-mesenchymal stromal cell; MSC, mesenchymal stromal cell; ni-MSC, not induced-mesenchymal stromal cell; PGCAP, platelet glue obtained from cryoprecipitation of apheresis platelet products.