Effects of acute and allogenic intravenous (i.v.) administration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal (BM-MSC) and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal (AD-MSC) cells on infarct volume, cell death and cell proliferation after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). (A) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that infarct volume was not significantly decreased after BM-MSC or AD-MSC administration. (B) H&E staining showed infarct volume was not diminished at 14 d. (C) TUNEL staining at 14 d showed cell death was diminished after BM-MSC and AD-MSC administration. (D) Cell proliferation detected by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) staining at 14 d was increased in the BM-MSC and AD-MSC groups. (E) BrdU co-labeling with glial fiibrillary acid protein (GFAP) and neurofilament (NF) in the infarct, BM-MSC and AD-MSC groups in the peri-infarct zone at 14 days (scale bars = 20 μm). Data are expressed as mean ± SD (n = 10); *P < 0.05.