Doublecortin regulators during development and cancer invasion. Several doublecortin regulators have been identified for immature neuron migration during embryonic development (upper panel), whereas in the adult brain little is known, especially in glioblastoma invasion (lower panel), indicating that extensive studies are still required to characterize and address regulators of glioblastoma invasion. RAI is also known as SHC3/SHCC/N-SHC. Figure was produced by using Servier Medical Art. CDK5, cyclin-dependent kinase 5; DCX, doublecortin; JNK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase; LEF, lymphoid enhancer factor; MARK, MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 3; PKA, protein kinase A; PP2A, protein phosphatase 2; PTEN, phosphatase and tensin homolog; TCF, T-cell factor; WNT, wingless-type MMTV integration site family.