Phenotype of implanted cells. (a-d) Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs); (e-j) bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs). (a) Sox10 in situ of the bulge region of a hair bulb, revealing the NCSC population. (b) Cell emigration from a hair bulb (HB) after 7 days in vitro. (c) Sox10 immunostaining of the NCSCs (low numbers of Sox10-negative cells are shown with arrowheads). (d) NCSCs cultured for 14 days, with the final 4 days in 10 ng/ml neuregulin, then immunostained for the Schwann cell marker S100 (occasional S100-negative cells marked with arrowheads). BMSCs were (e) vimentin+, (f) CD90+, and (g) CD45-, consistent with a mesenchymal phenotype. (h) Undifferentiated rat bone marrow cells exhibit a stromal phenotype in culture. (i) Adipogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived stem cells showing the presence of intracellular lipid vacuoles (stained with Oil Red O). (j) Osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow showing the presence of calcification (stained with Alizarin Red). Scale bars: 50 μm (b-d), 20 μm (e, f), 10 μm (g), and 200 μm (h-j).