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Figure 3 | Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Figure 3

From: Mechanical regulation of chondrogenesis

Figure 3

Mechanisms of mechanically-induced chondrogenesis. Joint loading produces complex tissue strains, which lead to direct cellular and nuclear deformation, and generates indirect biophysical factors, including osmotic and hydrostatic pressure and fluid flow. Mechanical loading of isolated chondrocytes or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seeded into hydrogels or polymeric scaffolds may recapitulate many of the changes that occur in native cartilage. Candidate mechanical signal transducers in chondrocytes and MSCs include ion channels, the primary cilium, the nucleus, and the cytoskeleton.

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