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Table 1 Summary of recent dynamic compressive loading studies evaluating chondrogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells

From: Mechanical regulation of chondrogenesis

Bioreactor Compressive loading regimen Scaffold Species (age) Medium supplementation Preculture (days) Reference
Compression 1 Hz, 10%, 1 to 20 hours Agarose Bovine ± Dex ± TGFβ1 8 or 16 [16]
Compression 0.33 to 3 Hz, 10%, 1 to 3 hours Agarose Bovine (3 to 6 months) Dex ± TGFβ3 3 [17]
Compression (semipermeable) 0.3 Hz, 7.5%, 45 minutes on/45 minutes rest Agarose Horse (2 to 5 years) Dex ± TGFβ1 0 [18]
Compression 0.01 to 1 Hz, 10%, 1 to 4 hour/day Agarose Bovine (3 to 6 months) Dex ± TGFβ3 0 or 21 [19]
Compression + shear 0.1 to 1 Hz, 5 to 20%, 1 hour/day Fibrin/PU Human Dex ± TGFβ1 7 [20]
Compression 1 Hz, 10%, 1 hour/day Agarose Porcine (4 months) Dex ± TGFβ3 0 or 21 [21]
Compression + shear 1 Hz, 10 to 20%, 1 hour/day Fibrin/PU Human None 2 to 4 [22]
Compression 1 Hz, 10%, 1 hour Agarose Porcine (4 months) Dex + TGFβ3 0, 7, 14, 21 [23]
Compression + shear 0.1 Hz, 5 to 20%, 3 hours/day Agarose Bovine (3 to 6 months) Dex ± TGFβ3 21 [24]
Compression 1 Hz, 10%, 4 hours/day Hyaluronic acid Human Dex + TGFβ1 3 [25]
  1. Dex, dexamethasone; PU, polyurethane; TGFβ, transforming growth factor beta.