Immunofluorescent staining for renal heme oxygenase-1 antioxidant and alpha smooth muscle actin expressions. Immunofluorescent (IF) staining for renal heme oxygenase (HO)-1 antioxidant and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expressions at 72 hours after ischemia–reperfusion (IR) (n = 8). (A) to (E) Microscopic findings of IF staining (200×) for number of HO-1+ cells (white arrows) in renal parenchyma of five groups. Scale bars in right lower corner = 50 μm. (F) *P <0.0001 vs. other groups with different symbols; † vs. ‡ vs. ¶ vs. §, all P <0.05 for inter-group comparisons. (G) to (K) Microscopic (100×) findings of α-SMA staining for the number of small vessels (defined as diameter <25 μm; red arrows) among five groups. (L) *P <0.001 vs. other groups with different symbols; † vs. ‡ vs. ¶, all P <0.05 for inter-group comparisons. Scale bars at right lower corner = 100 μm (100×). All statistical analyses performed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni multiple comparison post-hoc test. Different symbols (*, †, ‡, ¶, §) among different groups indicate significance at the 0.05 level. ADMSC, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell; CsA, cyclosporine A.