HUMSC-NC transplantation induced M2-like microglial activation and modulated neuroinflammation. (A) mRNA levels of Arg-1, YM-1, MRC1, FIZZ1, and CD163 in the cortex or hippocampus were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. GAPDH was used as the reference gene. (n = 6 in each group). (B) Immunofluorescence staining for AMCase and Iba-1. Tissue sections were processed and stained with rabbit anti mouse Iba-1 IgG (1:500; Wako) and goat anti-mouse AMCase IgG (1:200, Santa Cruz). FITC- or TRITC-conjugated secondary antibodies (1:200) were used to visualize the staining. Scale bar represents 50 μm. (C) mRNA levels of IL-4, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the cortex or hippocampus were measured with quantitative RT-PCR (n = 6 in each group). (D) Double immunofluorescence staining for TNF-α and Iba-1 in the cortex and hippocampus area. (E) Double immunofluorescence staining for IL-4 and Iba-1 in the cortex and hippocampus area. The images were merged from individual images with different staining. Images were captured by a camera system connected to the fluorescence microscope (Nikon Eclipse 90i LH-M100CB-1). Scale bar represents 20 μm. Data are presented as mean ± SEM. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; HUMSC-NC-treated group versus PBS-treated group.