Serum-mediated chemotaxis for undifferentiated, chondrogenic differentiated, and dedifferentiated states of MSCs. (A) Serum-mediated chemotaxis showed higher hemacolor staining for MSCs compared with (B) control. (C) Quantification assessment with Image J software revealed more migrated cells for undifferentiated MSCs compared with control. (D) Chondrogenically differentiated cells showed intermediate hemacolor staining compared with (E) control, and (F) quantification assessment confirmed their low migration potential (33%). (G) Similarly, dedifferentiated cells again showed intense hemacolor staining compared with (H) control, (I), and the number of migrated cells was confirmed with Image J software. (J) The percentage of migrated cells relative to total cell number (40 × 103) is shown for undifferentiated, chondrogenic differentiated, and dedifferentiated states of MSCs (n = 3). Student t test was performed for statistical analysis, and asterisks were assigned in the order P* < 0.05, P** < 0.01, and P*** < 0.001, mean ± SEM. Bar, 200 μ m.