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Table 1 Various growth factors and their effects on proliferation and survival of multipotential stromal cells.

From: Growth factor regulation of proliferation and survival of multipotential stromal cells

  Growth factor family Growth factor Receptor/signaling modulator Effects on proliferation/survival/morphogenesis
1 TGF-β TGFβ3 ALK-1, ALK-2, ALK-3, ALK-6 [40] Increases chondrogenesis [34]
    ALK-4, ALK-5, ALK-7 [40] Increases proliferation [32]
   BMP-2 Erk [42] Increases osteogenesis [35], increases proliferation [36, 37]
   BMP-3 ALK-4/SMAD 2, SMAD 3 [38] Increases proliferation [38]
2 FGF FGF-2 FGFR/Erk [51] Bias towards chondrogenesis on prolonged exposure [13], increases proliferation [13, 43]
   FGF-4 FGFR/Erk (putative) Increases proliferation [44]
3 VEGF VEGF-A VEGF receptor/PDGF receptor [55, 87]/Erk [60] Increases proliferation [52, 53]
    VEGF receptor/PDGF receptor/PI3K [60] Increases survival [72]
4 PDGF PDGF-BB PDGF receptor/Erk [60] Increases proliferation [81]
    PDGF receptor/Erk [60] Increases survival [76]
5 EGF Soluble EGF EGF receptor/transient Erk [22, 78] No effect on differentiation [60], increases proliferation [60]
   Tethered EGF EGF receptor/sustained Erk [22, 78] Increases spreading and survival [22]
   Heparin-binding EGF EGF receptor/Erk [64] No effect on differentiation [65], increases proliferation [65]
6 HGF HGF c-Met/p38 MAPK [64] Enhances survival [64]
    c-Met/PI3K [64] Inhibits proliferation [64]
7 Wnt Wnt3a β-catenin Promotes proliferation [67]
  1. ALK, activin receptor-like kinase; BMP, bone morphogenetic protein; EGF, epidermal growth factor; Erk, extracellular signal-regulated kinase; FGF, fibroblast growth factor; HGF, hepatocyte growth factor; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase; PDGF, platelet-derived growth factor; PI3K, phosphoinositide-3 kinase; TGFβ, transforming growth factor beta; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.