IL1β treatment induced a pro-inflammatory response in MSCs. (a) MSCs were cultured in normal (D)MEM in the presence of recombinant IL1β (10 and 50 ng/ml), recombinant IL6 (50 ng/ml), both IL1β and IL6 (50 ng/ml each) or in the presence of vehicle control (dH2O). Images were taken on day 4 and 7 (4x). (b) Quantification of a representative set of genes in the cytokine and inflammatory response pathway in MSCs exposed to different cytokines from (a). Data are presented as fold change in gene expression relative to MSCs exposed to vehicle. Data are presented as mean ± S.D., n = 3. MSCs, mesenchymal stem cells.